Uncovering the Taxation System In India: The Structure & The Bureaucracy

It is commonly said that the only thing certain in life is death and taxes. While you may not know what happens after death, do you know what happens after you pay your taxes? If not, let’s find out! In India, the tax system is a complex and ever-evolving landscape. It is a three-tier federal structure, with the central government, state governments, and local municipal bodies all playing a role in tax collection. The tax system is designed to raise revenue for the government to fund its various expenditures, such as infrastructure development, social welfare programs, and defense.

Types of Taxes

You must probably know that India follows a dual tax structure, comprising direct and indirect taxation. 

Direct Taxes

There are four types of direct taxes in India:

  1. Income Tax: India’s income tax system is progressive, with varying tax rates based on income slabs. Individuals and businesses must file their income tax returns annually, declaring their earnings, deductions, and exemptions. The government periodically revises these tax slabs and rates to align with economic conditions. Additionally, initiatives like the Aadhaar-based PAN card have been introduced to enhance tax administration and curb tax evasion.
  2. Wealth Tax: While wealth tax was abolished, there has been ongoing debate about reintroducing a form of wealth taxation to address wealth inequality. The government is exploring alternative measures, such as the inclusion of a surcharge on high-income individuals and corporations, to ensure a more equitable distribution of the tax burden.
  3. Gift Tax: The removal of the gift tax has led to an increase in transactions involving gifts. However, concerns about potential misuse and tax evasion through gifts have prompted discussions on the need for stricter regulations or the reintroduction of a modified gift tax regime.
  4. Capital Gains Tax: Capital gains tax plays a crucial role in revenue generation. The government periodically reviews and revises the tax rates on capital gains, considering factors like holding periods and the type of asset sold. Recent reforms may include incentives for long-term investments to promote economic stability.

Indirect Taxes

  1. Goods and Services Tax (GST): GST, a landmark indirect tax reform, has streamlined the taxation of goods and services. The GST Council continually reviews and refines tax rates, ensuring that they align with economic conditions and address industry concerns. Efforts are ongoing to further simplify the GST structure and address challenges faced by businesses in compliance.
  2. Customs Duty: Customs duty remains a crucial tool for regulating imports and exports. The government periodically adjusts customs duty rates to protect domestic industries, promote exports, and align with global trade dynamics. Recent developments include the digitization of customs processes, enhancing efficiency and reducing bottlenecks.
  3. Excise Duty: Although excise duty is subsumed under GST, its historical role in revenue generation is noteworthy. The government closely monitors the impact of this transition on specific industries and periodically adjusts policies to ensure a smooth transition while maintaining revenue stability.
  4. Value-Added Tax (VAT): The shift from VAT to GST marked a significant change in India’s indirect tax landscape. While GST has addressed the complexities associated with multiple state-level VAT regulations, ongoing efforts focus on minimizing compliance challenges for businesses and ensuring a harmonized approach across states.

Tax Structure

The Indian tax structure is characterized by several features, including:

  • Progressive taxation: This means that as the income or value of goods and services increases, the tax rate also increases. This is designed to ensure that those with higher incomes pay a larger share of the tax burden.
  • Broad tax base: The Indian tax base is relatively broad, meaning that a wide range of goods, services, and incomes are subject to taxation.
  • Complex tax laws: The Indian tax laws are complex and often subject to change. This can make it difficult for taxpayers to comply with their tax obligations.

The Tax Men

The Indian tax system is administered by several different agencies, including:

Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT): The CBDT is increasingly leveraging technology for tax administration. Initiatives such as e-assessments and online filing have been introduced to streamline processes, reduce paperwork, and enhance transparency in direct tax administration.

Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC): The CBEC, now CBIC, has embraced digital platforms to modernize customs and excise administration. The implementation of the Single Window Interface for Facilitating Trade (SWIFT) and other e-customs initiatives has significantly reduced processing times and enhanced trade facilitation.

Goods and Services Tax Council (GSTC): The GSTC plays a pivotal role in the collaborative administration of GST. Ongoing efforts include continuous dialogue between the central and state representatives to address industry concerns, simplify compliance, and harmonize GST rates for different sectors.

State and Local Authorities: State-level tax authorities are increasingly adopting digital platforms for tax administration. Initiatives like online registration and e-filing aim to simplify processes, reduce bureaucratic delays, and enhance overall efficiency at the regional level. Collaboration between central and state authorities is crucial for a cohesive tax administration framework.


The Indian tax system is a complex and ever-evolving landscape. It is important for taxpayers to be aware of the latest changes to tax laws and to comply with their tax obligations. The government is committed to reforming the tax system and making it more efficient and transparent.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

Finnable has set a required minimum age for personal loan of 21 years for individuals to be eligible for a personal loan. This ensures that applicants have reached legal adulthood and are capable of entering into a financial agreement.

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Unfortunately, no. Finnable does not, at the moment, offer any loans to senior citizens. Currently, 60 is the maximum age for personal loans set by Finnable

Other than personal loan age limits, Finnable considers various other factors for determining loan eligibility. These factors may include the applicant's income, credit score, repayment capacity, and employment stability. By assessing these aspects comprehensively, Finnable ensures that borrowers across different age groups can access the loan products that best suit their financial needs. 


Amit Arora

I am a seasoned retail banker with over 21 years of global experience across business, risk and digital. In my last assignment as Global Head Digital Capabilities, I drove the largest change initiative in the bank to deliver the end-to-end digital program with over US$1 billion in planned investment. Prior to that, as COO for Group Retail Products & Digital, I implemented a risk management framework for retail banking across the group.
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